The website is launched on 29 June 2018

Combined hormonal contraception

Long term safety of hormonal contraception

Potential causes for poor adherence

  • Wish to get pregnant
  • Accessibility
  • Price
  • Ambivalence about avoiding pregnancy
  • Side effects/development of contraindications
    • Bleeding, cramps, weight gain, headache, decrease in sexual function….
  • Estrogen dose
  • Type of progestin
  • Difficult to use
  • Packaging

Rosenberg M et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 179: 577-82
Rosenberg MJ et al. Contraception 1999; 60: 321-9
Rosenberg MJ et al. Contraception 1995; 51: 283-8
ESHRE. Hum Reprod 2000; 15: 1865-71
Frost JJ et al. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2008; 40: 94-104

NuvaRingTM: adaptive design optimized for vaginal hormone delivery


  • Soft, flexible, latex-free 2
  • Easily inserted and removed 3
  • Long-acting reversible method avoids need for daily administration.4
  • Controlled release of low-level hormones reduces fluctuations in blood levels. 5,6
  • Highly effective when used consistently and correctly7
  • Discreet 5
  • Acceptable to women and partners 8
  • Rapid return to preexisting fertility 7

1 NuvaRing Summary of Product Characteristics. Accessed 10 January 2011; 2 Nanda K. In: Hatcher RA et al, eds. Contraceptive Technology. 19th rev ed. Ardent Media Inc; 2009:271-295; 3 Alexander NJ et al. Fertil Steril. 2004;82(1):1-12; 4 Mishell DR Jr. In: Katz VL et al, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 5th ed. Mosby Elsevier; 2007:275-325; 5BalogluE et al. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2009;12(3):312-336; 6 Darney PD. In: Kronenberg HM et al, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Saunders Elsevier; 2008:615-644; 7World Health Organization. Family planning. A global handbook for providers. Accessed 9 September 2010; 8Novák A et al. Contraception. 2003;67;187-194.

Key goals for hormonal contraception in women

Reduced unintended/unwanted pregnancy
Few side effects
Good cycle control2
Reduced breakthrough bleeding
Avoid need for daily administration
Patient Satisfaction

1Trussell J. In: Hatcher RA et al, eds. Contraceptive Technology. 19th rev ed. Ardent Media; 2009;19-47; 2Bjarnadóttir RI et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186:389-395; 3World Health Organization. Contraceptive technology. Accessed 24 November 2010.

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